By Joe Salmons
Spoken language is topic to consistent swap and the impression of alternative audio system. This publication takes in a survey of literature to be had relating to accessory attrition and merging, and is going directly to convey that accessory shift occurs the world over and in all social settings, eventually taking in an research of prehistoric eu proto-language with the focal point on a proposed shared Celtic-Germanic accessory approach.
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Extra info for Accentual Change and Language Contact: A Comparative Survey and a Case Study of Northern Europe
Some of these contact-related accent shifts occur within areas generally characterized by tone. Heine (1973:166–771) notes loss of tonal accent in various African pidgins, including Fanagalo, Town-Bemba (“Stadt-Bemba”), and all pidginized forms of Hausa. ” Welmers (1973:78) makes the same point using similar language with examples including KiKongo. Here is Heine’s summary: “In all observed instances, the distinctive tonal differences lose in significance [under language contact]. ” Further on (1973:171), Heine observes that a fixed stress accent (“ein automatischer Druckakzent”) tended to develop, often with primary stress, for example, in Kituba.
Languages within the same genetic subgrouping—listed as tonal: Galla and Somali (both East Cushitic) and Iraqw (South Cushitic). Scandinavian Language Contact 35 (1971:527) notes simplification of tonal systems in African pidgins, with a tendency toward stress systems, but wonders whether such changes would occur without the influx of many speakers of nontonal languages. Of course, the above arguments should in no fashion imply that a certain intensity of language contact is the only motivation for loss of distinctive tone.
E. Celtic-Germanic contact changes clearly fell within this range. The broader, northern European area also fit this pattern, probably at an earlier time and so, much later, did the area around the Baltic Sea. Accentuation as an areal phenomenon extends beyond such examples. Many areas of the world reveal shared accentual features across even broad genetic boundaries. The views of Jakobson (1971b) and Lehiste (1978, 1983) on accentuation around the Baltic provide the best known examples in a European context.
Accentual Change and Language Contact: A Comparative Survey and a Case Study of Northern Europe by Joe Salmons