By Christopher Ehret
Nilo-Saharan is among the 4 significant language households at the African continent. It extends eastwards from the Niger to Western Ethiopia and additional southwards to Northern Tanzania. whereas the prestige of Nilo-Saharan as a phylum has been mostly permitted on the grounds that Greenberg (1963), the inner category has remained arguable. the current quantity is meant as a decisive contribution in the direction of the verification of the interior dating of the Nilo-Saharan languages. utilizing average sound correspondences for verifying degrees of inner dating was once started within the Nineteen Eighties, yet this paintings takes up the consequences accomplished hitherto and keeps from this foundation. New assets are considered: except reconstructing consonants, vowels and tone, the examine additionally comprises derivational and inflectional morphology in addition to pronouns. The booklet contains major components. the 1st half (chapter 2-8) is devoted to the reconstruction of consonants, vowels and tone, to the subclassification of Nilo-Saharan, verbal and nominal derivation, inflection and the pronominal procedure. the second one half (chapter nine) is an etymological dictionary of 1,606 roots, complemented via annotations and reflexes of the roots within the specific languages. greater than 10,000 roots are mentioned without delay. The research of the 1st half (chapter 2-8) relies at the facts prepared in bankruptcy nine. crucial results of Ehret's paintings issues the connection of Songay within the Nilo-Saharan context. the writer argues convincingly that Songay may be considered as an essential member of the Nilo-Saharan family members. Connections with Mande has to be visible as borrowings from Songay into Mande. moreover, the demonstrated commonplace sound correspondences and the reconstructed Proto-Nilo-Saharan vocabulary let for drawing up phonological histories of every language and distinguishing among personal loan as opposed to long term inherited phrases.
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Additional resources for A Historical-Comparative Reconstruction of Nilo-Saharan (SUGIA)
Trubetzkoy is concerned with the latter category and further divides it (20): Die Veränderungen der Lautgestalt eines Morphems können ent weder kombinatorisch oder frei sein. Die kombinatorischen Veränder ungen sind durch die äußere Lautstellung des Morphems und durch seine Berührung mit anderen Morphemen hervorgerufen. In contrast, freie Morphemänderungen or Alternationen involve no. shift of the phonetic environment (cf. i. die als morphologische Einheit gedachte Gesamtheit der an der betreffenden Alternation beteiligten Phoneme.
The influence of personality was not confined to the relationship between Baudouin and Kruszewski, however. A. Brückner had reviewed K voprosu o gune in an article that showed little understanding of or appreciation for the work, and Kruszewski lashed back in an article of 1882. Baudouin comments on this in his same article on Kruszewski (172): 23 EUROPEAN LINGUISTICS 1876-1938 There are few polemic articles that exhibit such scorn for the opponent, such arrogance, such striving to offend and personally insult, as does this reply by Kruszewski to Brückner's review .
This mechanical alternation is objectively the same as that between the noun house and the verb to house. In the latter case, however, it has an important grammatical function, that of trans forming a noun into a verb. The two alternations belong, then, to entirely different psychological categories. Only the latter is a true illustration of consonantal modification as a grammatical pro cess. This passage should make it clear that Boas's "internal change" is not confined to within words or morphemes but may include changes at morpheme boundaries and necessarily involves a grammatical function.
A Historical-Comparative Reconstruction of Nilo-Saharan (SUGIA) by Christopher Ehret